sábado, 4 de junio de 2016

Dark energy seen as one of the characteristics of dark matter.

Dark energy could be caused by the electrical polarity of dark matter.

 This work shows the dark energy as a possible characteristic of electrical polarity of dark matter, this feature could produce an electrical repulsion force in the universe, producing a separation between matter, what could be interpreted as an expansion of the universe, but also this dark matter would produce a force of attraction when its polarity is different, which would allow the matter of different polarity to the dark matter to stay together. This theory is based on the assumption that most of the matter in the universe (dark matter) is ionic crystals, which fill and produce the cold in outer space; these ionic crystals have been originated from the natural evolution of the plasma which originated the entire matter in the universe (big bang), toward the state crystalline solid. These forces in the universe known as force repulsive (dark energy) or force of attraction (gravity), it would be as a result of an electrical phenomenon that presents the matter in crystalline state, known as piezoelectricity.

The razor of Ockham. Methodological principle:
"On equal terms, the simplest explanation is usually the most likely".


In cosmology, dark energy is a form of dark matter[i] [ii] [iii] or energy[iv] that would be present in the entire space, producing a pressure which tends to accelerate the expansion of the Universe, resulting in a gravitational force repulsiva.2 consider the existence of dark energy is the most frequent manner to explain the recent observations that the universe seems to be in rapid expansion. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy accounts for nearly three-quarters of the earth-total energy of the Universe.

The force of attraction in the universe known as the gravity has played an important role in making the universe in which it is. Gravity is what makes join between if pieces of matter, to form planets, moons and stars. Gravity is what makes the planets from entering into orbit around the star--like the land that is in orbit around our star, the Sun. Gravity is what makes the stars are brought together to form enormous galaxies rotating[v].

Isaac Newton was the first to expose that is of the same nature, the force that makes objects fall with constant acceleration in the earth (earth's gravity) and the force that keeps in motion the planets and the stars. This idea led him to formulate the first general theory of gravitation, the universality of the phenomenon, exposed in his book, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[vi]

Einstein's theory of general relativity makes a different analysis of the interaction gravitational. According to this theory, gravity can be understood as a geometric effect of matter on space-time. When certain amount of matter occupies a region of space-time, causes it to deform. Seen thus, the gravitational force is not already a "mysterious force that attracts', but the effect causing the deformation of space-time - geometry not Euclidean - about the movement of the bodies. According to this theory, since all objects move in spacetime, the deformed, the path of those will be diverted producing its acceleration[vii].

According to science the interaction gravitational pull is one of the four fundamental forces in nature, next to the electromagnetism, the strong nuclear interaction, and the weak nuclear interaction. Unlike the nuclear forces and Electromagnetism similarity, it acts at great distances. However, unlike the electromagnetism, gravity is a force of type attractive although there are special cases in which the geodetic temporary can expand in certain regions of space-time, which makes it appear to the gravity as a force repulsive, for example the dark energy. This is the reason that gravity is the most important strength when it comes to explaining the movements celestial.

Electricity (from the Greek ήλεκτρον elektron, whose meaning is 'Amber')[viii] is the set of physical phenomena related to the presence and flow of electric charges.

 In ancient cultures of the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as an amber bar, rubbing it with a wool or fur could attract light objects like feathers. Towards the year 600 b.c. Tales of Mileto made a series of observations on static electricity, where he believed that friction gave magnetism amber, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, that it did not need to rub[ix][x].

Tales was wrong to believe that the attraction was produced by a magnetic field, but later science would prove that there is a relationship between magnetism and electricity.
 Electricity manifests itself through various phenomena and physical properties:

Electrical Load: a property of some subatomic particles, which determines its interaction electromagnetic. The electrically charged produces and is influenced by electromagnetic fields.

Electric current: a flow or movement of electrically charged particles by a conductive material; it is measured in amperes.

Electric Field: a type of electromagnetic field produced by an electrical charge even when not moving. The electric field produces a force on other charges, less the greater the distance that separates the two loads. In addition the moving charges produce magnetic fields.

Electric Potential: is the ability of an electric field work; it is measured in volts.

Magnetism: The electric current produces magnetic fields, and the magnetic fields variables in time generate electric current.

The electricity is used to generate: 

Light through lamps

Heat, taking advantage of the Joule effect

Movement, using engines that transform electrical energy into mechanical energy

Signals through the use of electronic systems, composed of electrical circuits that include active components (vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) and passive components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors.

Electric charge is a property of matter that is manifested through forces of attraction and repulsion. Load originates in the atom, which is composed of subatomic particles charged as the electron and proton[xi].

The presence of load, gives place to the electromagnetic force: a load exerts a force on the other, an effect that was known in antiquity, but not understood[xii]. A ball light, suspended by a thread, could be charged to the contact with a glass rod previously loaded by friction with a tissue. It was found that if a similar ball was loaded by the same glass bar, were repelled between themselves. This phenomenon was investigated at the end of the eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin Coulomb, which inferred that the load is expressed in two opposing ways[xiii]. This discovery brought the well-known axiom "objects with the same polarity repel each other and with different polarity is attracted"[xiv].

Electric Field

Field Lines emerging from a positive charge toward a driver level.

The concept of electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. An electric field is created by a charged body in the space around it, and produces a force that it exerts on other loads that are located in the field.

Similar to the gravitational field that acts on two masses, and as such, it extends to infinity and its value is inversely proportional to the square of the distance[xv]. However, there is an important difference: While gravity always acts as attraction, the electric field can produce attraction or repulsion. If a large body like a planet has no net charge, the electric field at a given distance is zero. Therefore gravity is the dominant force in the universe, despite being much weaker[xvi]

An electric field varies in space, and its intensity at any point is defined as the force (per unit charge) that would perceive a load if it were located at that point[xvii].The test load must be insignificant to prevent their own field affects the main field and must also be stationary to prevent the effect of magnetic fields. As the electric field is defined in terms of force, and a force is a vector, then the electric field is also a vector, with magnitude and direction.

An ion1 (“going", in Greek; ἰών [ion] is the participle present of the verb ienai: 'Go') is a charged particle electrically formed by an atom or molecule that is not electrically neutral. Conceptually this can be understood as, from a neutral state of an atom or particle, have gained or lost electrons; this phenomenon is known as ionization.

The negatively-charged ions, which are produced by having more electrons than protons, is known as anions (which are attracted to the anode) and the positively-charged, as a result of a loss of electrons, is known as cations (which are attracted by the cathode).

The positive and negative ions combine to form a compound ionic. Due to the crystalline structure rigid of this compound, solid, does not conduct electric current. But when this compound ionic is placed in water, ions are separate and move freely. As it can now move freely, it can conduct an electric current pulled of an ion to the next.

Ionic compounds have the following properties:

 At room temperature (25 ° C) are solid crystalline, hard and brittle.
 It has high melting points.

In anhydrous State they do not lead the electric current, but when heated to melting State (if not decompose), yes they lead it.

Many Ionic compounds dissolve in very polar solvents (like water), and when it do, the solution is electrically conductive.

The atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds a celestial body. Gases are attracted by the gravity of the body, and remain therein if gravity is sufficient and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. Some planets are formed mainly by gas, so it has very deep atmospheres.

Atmospheric electricity is the diurnal variation of the atmosphere electromagnetic network (or, more generally, any electrical system in the atmosphere of a planet). The Earth's surface, the ionosphere, and the atmosphere is known as the "global atmospheric electrical circuit". Atmospheric electricity is a multidisciplinary topic

There is always free electricity in the air and clouds, which act by induction on the Earth and electromagnetic devices[xviii]. Experiments have shown that there is always free electricity in the atmosphere, which is sometimes negative and sometimes positive, but most of the time is generally positive, and the intensity of this free electricity is higher at noon to the morning or evening and is greater in winter than in summer. With good weather, the potential increases with altitude at a rate, according to some authors, of around 100 volts per meter[xix].

The atmospheric environment, by which we are surrounded by, not only contains electricity combined, as any other form of matter, but also a considerable amount in the free state and without combining, sometimes of a type, sometimes of another; but as a general rule is always nature opposite to that of the earth.

The origin of atmospheric electricity is still unknown. Some physicists have attributed to the friction of the air with the ground, others to the oxidation step of plant and animal life, others new to evaporation, to the induction of the sun, and the temperature differences[xx].

Piezoelectricity (from the Greek piezein, "squeeze or press") is a phenomenon occurring in certain crystals, to be subjected to mechanical stresses; its mass acquires an electrical polarization and appears a difference of potential and electrical charges on its surface.
The crystals that acquire an electric charge when compressed twist or distort, say they are piezoelectric. This effect transducer between the oscillations electrical and mechanical has a practical utility[xxi].

Piezoelectric materials are natural or synthetic crystals which have no center of symmetry. A compression or shear cause dissociation of the centers of gravity of electric charges, both positive and negative. As a result, in the mass are elemental dipoles, and by influence, the opposing surfaces give rise to charges of opposite sign.

The property of piezoelectricity was first observed by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1881 studying compression of Quartz. By subjecting it to the mechanical action of the compression, the charges of matter are separated. This leads to a polarization of the load, causing sparks that jump.

In the matter to happen the property of piezoelectricity must crystallize in systems that have no center of symmetry (which possess asymmetry) and, therefore, of the polar axis. Of the 32 Crystal classes, 21 there is the mentioned Center. In 31 of these classes takes place the piezoelectric property, to a greater or lesser extent. Gases, liquids and solids with symmetry do not possess piezoelectricity.

If pressure is applied at the ends of the shaft polar occurs polarization: electron flow is directed toward one end and generates a negative charge, while at the opposite end induces a positive charge.

The razor of Ockham (sometimes spelled Occam or Ockam), economy or principle of parsimony (lexparsimoniae), is a philosophical and methodological principle attributed to the philosopher, Franciscan friar and Scholastic logic William of Ockham (1280-1349), according to which:
"On equal terms, the simplest explanation is usually the most likely".


All the matter in the universe according to the science originated from a plasma (big bang), but most of the matter, has not been possible to be detected, my theory is based on the assumption that the majority of matter (dark matter) originating in the plasma of the big bang, has evolved into the crystalline state, as it teaches the nature of phase change of the plasmas. Also as all matter originated from plasma, and all the plasmas are composed mostly of ions, then the whole invisible matter would be composed of ionic crystals.

Gravity is a force of attraction; Isaac Newton was the first to expose that is of the same nature, the force that makes objects fall with constant acceleration in the earth (earth's gravity) and the force that keeps in motion the planets and the stars. Then Albert Einstein said that the gravitational force is no longer a "mysterious force that attracts", but the effect of the deformation of space-time -of non-euclidean geometry - on the motion of bodies.

Dark energy is a form of dark matter that would be present in the entire space, producing a pressure which tends to accelerate the expansion of the Universe, resulting in a gravitational force repulsive.

But the nature teaches us that the only thing that can produce attraction or repulsion is an electrical charge, which is a property of matter. And the feature of attraction or repulsion depends on the polarity of the matter. Then according to this work if the majority of matter in the universe is made of ionic crystals, as it is understood of agreement the theory that the majority of the plasma originated from the big bang, it evolved into the crystalline state solid, the force of repulsion of the universe (dark energy), could be produced by this crystalline matter, when  due charge equal between matter , this produces a force of repulsion, and another force of attraction when the polarity of the load between these is different, which would be possible as a result of the electrical phenomenon in crystalline matter known as piezoelectric transducer


As a conclusion it can say based on the knowledge that the attraction and repulsion is a feature of the electrical charges of the matter, depending on its polarity, that the force of repulsion is caused by the dark matter in the universe, when its electrical load is of equal polarity with the matter that surrounds it, this force of repulsion would be what we know as dark energy, which in this work would be originated as the force of repulsive attraction, by ionic crystals, when by a compression, friction or shear, causes a high concentration of electrical charge, producing what we know as piezoelectricity.



[i] Ostriker, Jeremiah P., and Paul Steinhardt, "The Quintessential Universe", Scientific American, vol. 284, no. 1 (January 2001), pp. 46–53.

[ii] P. J. E. Peebles y Bharat Ratra. «The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy» [La constante cosmológica y la energía oscura]. Reviews of Modern Physics 75: 559–606.

[iii] Véase Weinberg, Steven (2008). Cosmology (en inglés). Oxford University Press. p. v. ISBN 978-0-19-852682-7.

[iv] Altarelli, Guido (2008). Elementary Particles (en inglés). Springer. p. 9-6. ISBN 9783540742029.

[viii]  Real Academia Española (2014), «electricidad», Diccionario de la lengua española (23.ª edición), Madrid: Espasa, consultado el 13 de mayo de 2015

[ix] Enciclopedia ilustrada Cumbre. México:Editorial Cumbre, S. A. 1958.

[x] Stewart, Joseph (2001), Intermediate Electromagnetic Theory, World Scientific, p. 50, ISBN 981-02-4471-1

[xi] Trefil, James (2003), The Nature of Science: An A–Z Guide to the Laws and Principles Governing Our Universe, Houghton Mifflin Books, p. 74, ISBN 0-618-31938-7

[xii] Sears, et al., Francis (1982), University Physics, Sixth Edition, Addison Wesley, p. 457, ISBN 0-201-07199-1

[xiii] Jackson, J.D.. Classical Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2ª edición. 1975. ISBN 978-0-471-43132-9:

[xiv] Coulomb, C.A.. Construction et usage d'une balance electrique sur la propriete qu’ont les fils de metal, d’avoir une force de réaction de torsion proportionnelle a l'angle de torsion. Mem. de l’acad. Sci. pags. 569 y 579. 1785.

[xv] Umashankar, Korada (1989), Introduction to Engineering Electromagnetic Fields, World Scientific, pp. 77–79, ISBN 9971-5-0921-0

[xvi] Hawking, Stephen (1988), A Brief History of Time, Bantam Press, p. 77, ISBN 0-553-17521-1

[xvii] Sears, et al., Francis (1982), University Physics, Sixth Edition, Addison Wesley, pp. 469–470, ISBN 0-201-07199-1

[xviii] Richard Spelman Culley, A Handbook of Practical Telegraphy. Longmans 1885. Page 104

[xix] The Encyclopedia Americana; A library of universal knowledge. (1918). New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp. Page 181.

[xx] The Encyclopedia Americana; A library of universal knowledge. (1918). New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp. Page 181.

[xxi] http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbasees/solids/piezo.html

The confirmation and verification of the theory of general relativity

This work aims to show in detail the characteristics of the experiment that changed the physics in 1919. Alberto Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity in 1915, but this theory go to science as a true fact then of experiments conducted in 1919, on the basis of this theory accepted scientifically was developed the theory of the big bang and almost all explanations in astronomy. The scientists who made the experiment during the eclipse of may 29, 1919. They believed that the  displacement  of the stars in the sky, was due to the curvature of space time due to gravity of the sun, and not by the optical effect produced by the water crystals in the atmosphere, in the entire sky observed from earth.The data in the experiment of the eclipse of 1919 the only error that has, is that its data fail to prove the theory of relativity for which it was designed, which proposed that the gravity of the Sun, produces a curvature of light, and therefore the data was often examined, otherwise the theory of relativity never have been discussed. Nature does not have to cooperate with the theory!

"Star not where they seemed or were calculated to be, but nobody need worry"New York times headline of November 10, 1919.

"A book for 12 wise men",No more in all the world could comprehend it , said Einstein when his daring publishers accepted it.  New York times headline of November 10, 1919.

Writing in our issue of November 15, 1919. Dr. A.C. Crommelin, one of the British observers, said: “ (Einstein’s theory)… it is of profound philosophical interest. Straight lines in Einstein´s space cannot exist; they are parts of gigantic curves,”

The solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. It was the scientific event more mediatic of the 20th century, which presented as the experiment that would give a winner between the two currents of scientific thinking of the epoch, between Newton and Einstein old science and the new science. And based on two similar theories, were prepared to explain the data of the experiment conducted by the famed astrophysicist sir Arthur Eddington.

The data of the experiment have been questioned many times, by some scientists, but analyzing the data from a modern perspective, we can say, that neither of the two theories explains satisfactorily the displacement of all the stars in the sky, and as we understand the words of Albert Einstein, "only 12 wise men in the world can understand relativity". Which apparently is checked with data opposed to his approach, then on the death of the 12 wise, the world remained without anybody who could understand like the experiment of the solar eclipse of 1919, verified the relativity.

But a current understanding of the effect lens, produced by the water crystals at the top of the atmosphere, could be the answer to the explanation of the displacement of the light from the stars in the sky, which are seen in the data of the experiment of the 1919 eclipse.

What is gravity? It is the force of attraction exerted by the Earth and other celestial bodies on bodies or objects posing there. It is also known as gravity or gravitational force.

What is gravitational lens? In Astrophysics a gravitational lens, also known as gravitational lens, is formed when the light from brilliant and distant objects like quasars is curved around a massive object (such as a Galaxy) between the emitting object and the receiver.

Gravitational lenses were predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory. In 1919 it is failed to prove the accuracy of the prediction. During a solar eclipse the astronomer Arthur Eddington observed is how curving the trajectory of the light coming from distant stars passing close to the Sun, producing an apparent displacement of their positions.

The TRG predicts that light when passing close to a large gravitational field (for example, near a star), its trajectory would bend, as is the case with a body that runs nearby.

When a ray of light passes close to the Sun its trajectory is affected since space-time is strongly curved in a setting of the Sun. 

How was the experiment and that it was observed in the solar eclipse of 1919?



Writing in our issue of November 15, Dr. A.C. Crommelin, one of the British observers, said: “The eclipse was especially favourable for the purpose, there being no fewer than twelve fairly bright stars near the limb of the sun. The process of observation consisted in taking photographs of these stars during totality, and comparing them with other plates of the same region taken when the sun was not in the neighborhood. Then if the starlight is bent by the sun’s attraction, the stars on the eclipse plates would seem to be pushed outward compared with those on the supporting. (Einstein’s theory)… it is of profund philosophical interest. Straight lines in Einstein´s space cannot exist; they are parts of gigantic curves,”

Eddington, who led the experiment, first measured the “true” positions of the stars during January and February 1919. Then in May he went to the remote island of Príncipe (in the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa) to measure the stars’ positions during the eclipse, as viewed through the sun’s gravitational lens.

At first sight it would appear that the movement of the stars by the gravity of the sun is not in accordance with the theory of general relativity, but to quote what we see in the picture in words of scientists.

By Brown (1967), “Eddington was based this assessment in a premature of the photographic plate. Initially, the star doesn't "seem" bend as they should, as was required by Einstein, but then, according to Brown, the unexpected happened: several stars were then observed bending in a direction transverse to the direction expected, and other more doubling in a direction opposite to that predicts the relativity”.

According to Poor.1930, "Really the displacements of the stars in minimal grade do not present the similarities foreseen by Einstein; neither of the direction, nor of the sizes, nor the grade of its fall with distance of the Sun".

How it was explained the experiment in 1919?

If the starlight is bent by the sun’s attraction, the stars on the eclipse plates would seem to be pushed outward compared with those on the supporting.

The explanation that we see in the 1919 illustration shows a shift towards the outside of the Sun opposite to the force of attraction that should produce gravity.

McCausland (2001) quotes the former editor of the journal Nature, Sir John Maddox:

"What is not so well documented is that measurements in 1919 were not very accurate"

"Despite the fact that the experimental evidence for relativity seems to have been very weak in 1919, enormous fame of Einstein has been kept intact and his theory since then has been considered one of the greatest achievements of human thought"

The BIPP asked:

"Was this the deception of the century?" and then said: "the relativity of the Eclipse of 1919 the Royal Society report deceived us for 80 years!"

McCausland said, "In the author's opinion, the confident announcement of decisive confirmation of Einstein's general theory in November 1919 was not a triumph of science, as it is often portrayed, but it is one of the most unfortunate incidents in the history of science of the 20th century". 

The problem of why the theory of relativity continued to increase its strength, although the data of the experiment of 1919 did not correspond with the theory, it was because the critics were still another current of thought very similar, which thought that the displacement of the light of the stars, is explained with the theory of gravitation by Newton, but now the data should be analyzed again from the point of view that the displacement of the light of the stars was due to the effect of the atmosphere in the data.


The experiment which confirmed the theory of relativity in 1919,, when was took the data that shows the displacement of the stars by the lens effect produced by the sun, were not taken into account the effect of lens produced in the atmosphere by the crystals of water (which was not known at the time), as I have explained in other blog, In addition the results in the experiment, were apparently contrary to the approaches suggested by the theory of relativity of Einstein, also gravity produced by the Sun would not have sufficient force as to displacement the great number of stars as we see in the explanations taken from a clipping of the era, with which we can conclude based on displacement of the star , the lens effect observed in 1919 was not due to the gravity of the Sun, but to the optical effect produced by the atmosphere.

To the measurements of the experiment of the eclipse of 1919 made by Sir Arthur Eddington, many analyses have been made it, but the only error that has the data of the experiment, is that it does not test the theory for which it was done, because nature does not cooperate with the theory.





The deflection of light as observed at total solar eclipses Authors: Poor, Charles Lane Publication: Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 2, issue 4, p.173 Publication Date: 04/1930 Origin: